Arthur Schatzkin was Chief of the Nutritional Epidemiology Branch of the National Cancer Institute. He led its Polyp Prevention Trial that demonstrated that a diet low in fat and high in fiber did not prevent the recurrence of adenomas in the large colon, as many had thought. He initiated the huge 500,000+ prospective cohort study called the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study that continues to provide data on the association of diet with health and disease. Earlier in his career, he was the first to observe the association between moderate alcohol intake and the risk of breast cancer. Schatzkin died of brain cancer at 62.